COVERT SYSTEMS

Covert Systems: an introduction to Rhetorical Aspect theory
(Modular Studies in History and Forms)

http://www.ulum.nl/c60.htmlنشر هذا المقال بمجلة علوم إنسانيةعلى الرابط_Dr ISMAIL CHOUKRI
Researcher in communication
And general rhetoric, Morocco

Acknowledgements


I wish to thank Dr Mohamed MIFTAH (University of Mohamed V, Rabat), who has provided invaluable help in the establishment of the Rhetorical aspect model. He has given me extremely useful comments and guidance on the entire manuscript.
I thank, also, Mohamed MOKRIM who has been very helpful with the language revision of this article.
Finally, I thank all of my collegues (at University of Mohamed V, Rabat and at University of Ben M'sik, Casa) whose contributions to the rhetorical aspect theory are of a great value.

 

I. ABSTRACT

When I established the thesis of Rhetorical Aspect (Choukri ,1999)I I provided an introduction to a new general modular rhetoric which interpret the figures in an aspectual model .
So, within this interpretative rhetoric we can specify spatial and semantic modules in order to study covert systems as the computing knowledge and the rhetorical interaction of human beings with environment and the world (Lakoff 1987, 1988).
First of all, it is possible to analyse the discourses of publicity and caricature taking into consideration the following problematic questions.
A) How can people recognize a moving or nonmoving picture as visual discourse having a meaning and a meaning of meaning ? (Putnam, Hilary 1975b).
B) How can the rhetorical mind define relationships between textures, man and environment all together?
C) How do the figures of mind actualize their aspectual mechanisms through visual processes?
In addition to this, history has also its covert systems. The fundamental idea in this context is that history can be articulated in some interpretative structures and sub-structures. After an event happens, it stops to be an event but becomes a truth, which itself becomes a representation in human experience (Putnam, Hilary 1981).
Thus, history turns out to be an image in a possible world (Hintika A.J, 1994).
The covert systems: Connotations or afferent features and implications have their conceptual activities in a rhetorical aspect that I am going to explain in the next thesises.

.

 II RHETORICAL ASPECT

The concept of «Rhetorical aspect » is a thesis that I suggested (CHOUKRI, 1999) in order to widen the grammatical aspect (Comrie B., 1976 - Cohen, D.1989) into a generic sense.
So, analysing the perfective aspect or the iterative (or habitual) aspect, we may notice that some features like « iteration » and « continuity » have their mirror manifestations in rhetorical figures such as metaphor and alliteration.
The basic principle of this thesis is that time is a cognitive component in the linguistic and visual discourses: Poetry, Novel, publicity, and educational discourse...
Moreover, time is a procceeding concept, which serves to explain and interpret many discourses. We can therefore ask this question: What is a rhetorical aspectual model?
First, we have to criticize the main concept in the structural poetic: The theory of contravention or Discard (Ecart: Cohen J. 1970).
The rhetorical figures from the cognitive semantic point of view are not a special characteristic (distinctive features) of poetry, but they are frames of the poetic of mind (Gibbs, JR.R.W, 1994) and they are connected to human experience by categories.
So, I established rhetorical aspect model in an addressing mode which is divided into three kinds making up the interaction between linguistic , cognitive and rhetorical structures .

A) Indirect Addressing

This kind of addressing mode represents the cognitive background for rhetorical intensity. Hence, this mode includes the accumulated cultural categories as human interaction with the world. For example, Redundancy, as a figure, has its roots in human architectural tradition which tallies with the redundancy of nature; Alternation of seasons and days. (Group  , 1977- PP 125-128).
Thus, the cyclic aspect including rhythmical tense refers to eternal repetitions in old greec and oriental civilizations. Furthermore, metaphors led man to associate his own life (birth, youth and old age) either with sun rotation (Dawn, afternoon, evening ...) or with season's rotation.
According to this perspective, cognitive semantics explain human knowledge by categorization and schematization (Rosch, E., 1977 and 1978).

 

Cognitive Background

Linguistic Basis

Rhetorical Basis 

Rhetorical Model

Figure (1) : Indirect addressing
 



 

B) Relative addressing

Relative addressing forms the linguistic basis of rhetorical intensity.
We can, in a wider sense, envisage rhetorical aspect as an interpretative projection of grammatical aspect by the basic mathematical reference : the appropriate case in this context is the figure called ‘‘Hyperbate ''.

Hence, mathematical order is the nucleous of both linguistic and rhetorical order. The latter is, also, an extension of linguistic order within the rhetorical intensity.


Rhetorical Model


Linguistic Norm+ Rhetorical transfer+ Rhetorical intensity

Rhetorical aspect


 
Figure (2) : Relative addressing

C) Direct addressing

This addressing mode is the rhetorical basis of rhetorical intensity in which we notice the symmetry between discourse figures and some rhetorical concepts such as rhythm theory. Therefore, the rhetorical basis of some categories as repetition and Isotopy, Miftah1985, corresponds directly to rhythmical figures such as Rhyme, Assonance and Alliteration.

 


Rhetorical Model    →        Accumulator


Symmetry



Rhyme , Alliteration,
Intensity , Isotopy, Metaphor
... 

Figure (3): Direct addressing


 

Hence, this intensity is not a distinctive feature of poetry, but it is a cognitive process that we live by, and it marks all kinds of discourse according to the text producer intentionality.
The famous expression : The officer's dog is barking (Greimas 1966 pp.50-54) will have its covert systems (hidden meanings) only if there is the rhetorical intentionality of the text producer in the context of enonciation. Furthermore, the rhetorical intensity is a result of multiple interactions between three kinds of addressing mode, which have been mentioned previously. Thus, the rhetorical intensity produces the rhetorical aspect in which we can interpret the rhetorical tenses such as cyclic, elastic and chaotic tenses.

Therefore, based on that fundamental explanation of rhetorical aspect principles, we ask this question: What are the aspectual figures in which we can interpret the covert systems?
At first, we can include « Polysemy » in categories of senses where one word (or many words) has more than one sense.
Filmore (1982 a) noticed for example, that the adjective ‘Long' has two senses; the first, which is also the prototype, is spatial and the second is temporal which is bound to the first by Metaphor (Lakoff 1987, pp.416-417).
Thus, a metaphorical expression such as Said is a lion establishs a mental space that is a hidden believable semantic structure. Then, we can interpret this expression according to Elastic Aspect principle - there is a metaphorical contraction or a contractive tense. The previous example abridges two worlds in one boundaried space (Merrell 1982, p.52) which hides this afferent feature: [+ heart]
So, hidden features are merged unities in the Sémème ( = the contents of a morphem : Rastier 1987) .
Thus, they are merged in the associative memory of the interlocutor; In other words, these hidden items are connotative features (Pottier 1974, p.68).
But, considering polysemy as a productive area of covert systems in the rhetorical aspects means that each repetition of a lexical item ( = Lexème , Rastier 1987) requires modifications in the original « Sèmème » according to the context and the co-text . Hence, we have to criticize the Arabic classical rhetoric, which rejects the idea that each repetitive lexical item has a new information-Focus conformably with the pragmatic situation of the discourse.
In addition to this, covert systems have also their aspectual forms in the visual discourse. So, the main temporal figure in the iconic image is texture (Groupe , 1992, p.197 ) which depends on the repetition of similar or opposite unities ( = texturèmes) that are composed of colours, surfaces and forms.
Thus, if those textures usually seem, to be a contradictory discourse, we can, nevertheless, interpret allotopies by the construction of covert meanings in a conceptual degree, and in aspectual terms according to the kind of textures repetitions (Cyclic Aspect or Elastic Aspect...) .
so, covert meanings in iconic signs, are cognitive relations between the model of sign (some characters of the referent ) and the producer of sign . In other words, covet systems in textures - Caricature for example - can be established from two mental systems:
- Reality as a conceivable system.
-The system of beliefs and intentionalities of both producer and interpreter.
In conclusion, I have explained in this article my perspective in studying covert systems in both visual and linguistic discourse including history as a mental image.
So, we have , in a modular approach , to consider those hidden systems as a computing knowledge whose temporal and aspectual figures are the result of interaction between man and the world .

Thus, I shall, in the future articles, make clear this experientialist perspective in order to interpret covert systems by the rhetorical aspect theory that deals, as a cognitive rhetorical model, with afferent features, implications, presuppositions, connotations of both texture and history.

 


Bibliography

1) CHOUKRI, S. (1999), criticism of the concept of ‘Ecart' in thought and critic 23, Moroccan House of edition Casablanca Morocco (Edited in Arabic).
2) LAKOFF, G. (1987), Women, Fire, and dangerous things, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
3) LAKOFF, G. (1988), Cognitive Semantics, In: Eco, U. and Violi, P.'Eds) Meaning and Mental Representations, Indiana University Press.
4) PUTNAM, H. (1975 b), the meaning of ‘Meaning'. In K.Gunderson, ed., Language, Mind and knowledge. Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science, 7.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
5) PUTNAM, H.(1981), Reason, truth, and history. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
6) HINTIKA, A.J, (1994), Fondements d'une théorie du langage, PUF, Paris.
7) COMRIE, B. (1976), Aspect, Academic Press, London.
8) COHEN, D. (1989), l'aspect verbal, PUF, Paris.
9) COHEN, J. (1970), théorie de la figure, dans : Communications 16, seuil, Paris.
10) GIBBS, JR.R.W. (1994) , the Poetics of Mind, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
11) Groupe. (1977), Rhétorique de la poésie, complexe, Bruxelles.
12) Groupe  (1992), Traité du signe visuel, seuil, Paris.
13) ROSCH, E., (1977). Human categorization. In N.Warren, ed., studies in cross - cultural psychology. London: Academic.
14) ROSCH, E.(1978).Principles of categorization . In ROSCH and Lloyd, 1978.
15) MIFTAH, M.(1985), Analysis of Poetic Discourse, Arabic cultural centre , Casablanca, Morocco (Edited in Arabic).
16) GREIMAS, A.J (1986), sémantique structurale, PUF, Paris.
17) FILMORE, CH. (1982 a), towards a descriptive framework for spatial deixis. INR.J.Jarvella and Wakelin, eds., speech, place, and action, London: John Wiley.
18) MERRELL, F. (1982), Semiotic foundations, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, London.
19) RASTIER, F. (1987), Sémantique Interpretative, PUF, Paris.
20) POTTIER, B.(1974) , Linguistique Générale , klincksieck , Paris.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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When I established the thesis of Rhetorical Aspect (Choukri ,1999)I provided an introduction to a new general modular rhetoric which interpret the figures in an aspectual model . so, we can widen the grammatical aspect (Comrie B., 1976 - Cohen, D.1989) into a generic sense. analysing the perfective aspect or the iterative (or habitual) aspect, we may notice that some features like « iteration » and « continuity » have their mirror manifestations in rhetorical figures such as metaphor and alliteration. The basic principle of this thesis is that time is a cognitive component in the linguistic and visual discourses: Poetry, Novel, publicity, and educational discourse... Moreover, time is a procceeding concept, which serves to explain and interpret many discourses. We can therefore ask this question: What is a rhetorical aspectual model? choukri_2007

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